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APA Style for Writing: References

This guide will cover APA format for papers.

What are References?

For APA format, references refer to citing the sources used in research. References can be made within the paper (in-text citations) and at the end in a References list.

In-Text Citations

In-text citations require the source's author name, year of publication, and page number (optional for paraphrasing, but still encouraged).

Reference List: Common Formats for Citation


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Gardner, J. R., & American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (1997). Housebreaking & training puppies: A complete and up-to-date guide. Philadelphia: Chelsea House.

Journal Article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. 

Westgarth, C., Knuiman, M., & Christian, H. E. (2016). Understanding how dogs encourage and motivate walking: Cross-sectional findings from RESIDE. BMC Public Health, 161-12. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3660-2

Page of a Website

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from

Bureau of Labor Statistics, & U.S. Department of Labor. (2015). Veterinary Technologists and Technicians. In Occupational Outlook Handbook,
Retrieved from

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