Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
All APA citations contain four main components:
List the full last name, a comma, and then the initials of the author, with a space between the initials. Do not list the full first or middle name of an author.
Do not use courtesy or academic titles in your citations. Do include suffixes such as Jr., Sr., III, etc.
List authors in the order they appear on the source. Spell out up to seven authors' names in the reference list in this format:
List all authors in the first in-text citation; all subsequent references can only include the first author and add et al.
In the in-text citation, only include the first author and add et al.
Include the first six authors, then three ellipsis points (. . .), and then the last author. In the in-text citation, only include the first author and add et al.
Some resources may be attributed to a group or organization, instead of a specific person or persons. In this case, give the name of the group or organization, capitalized as needed. If the resource is published by that same organization, use Author as the publisher. You may abbreviate the organization to a common abbreviation beginning with the second in-text citation.
First In-Text Citation:
Subsequent In-Text Citations:
For government authors that may have multiple departments as a hierarchy (for example, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine), you may use the responsible agency only.
If a book is compiled by an editor (usually specified on the cover or title page), list the names as usual, but add (Ed.)or (Eds.) after the names, to signify editor or editors.
If there is no listed author or editor, start your citation with the title, place the date after the title, and continue the citation as normal. Remember that authors can be a company, organization, or group author, and that should be used as the author if provided.
Title. (date). Retrieval information.
For in-text citations, use the title of the item, followed by the date. If the title is long, you may abbreviate it to the first few words. Book titles are italicized; journal or website articles are put in quotations.
If the item is expressly attributed to "Anonymous," list that as the author:
If your reference list will have more than one author with the same surname and first initial, give the full first name in brackets, and cite the full name in the text.
Some authors may employ pseudonyms (Mark Twain for Samuel Clemens, for example). APA guidelines state that you should cite what you see—cite what is listed on the book or resource you are using.
Some names, such as those with religious or nobility titles, may need to be listed differently in the References page in order to preserve the meaning:
Some authors may purposefully present their names with unusual capitalization, such as all lowercase. Preserve this capitalization in your references and in-text citations. However, keep in mind that some articles or books may stylistically choose to list authors in all caps; this is not an author choice. Disregard and format author names as others.
If the author's last name begins a sentence, however, capitalize it.
Most sources (such as books, journal articles, videos, etc.) only require the year. For magazines, newsletters, and newspapers, provide the full date.
If an item does not have a discernible date, you may use n.d. as the date (for no date); do not simply leave out the date. For webpages, do not use a general copyright date given for the website. Look for a specific created, updated, or modified date for the page or document you are using.
If you have two or more distinct works by the same author and published in the same year, differentiate them as follows:
For items that have a full date, such as blogs or newspaper articles, add the differentiating letter to the year, and keep the month and/or day:
If both items are using n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter:
If you are citing a classic work that has been reprinted or republished, you can include the original date at the end of the citation. Include both dates in the in-text citation.
APA requires you to only capitalize certain words in a title. You should capitalize the following:
APA requires you to italicize the titles of stand-alone works:
If you are citing something that is part of a bigger work, you do not italicize the titles:
If a title ends with a non-period punctuation mark (such as a question mark or an exclamation mark), use that as the ending punctuation without adding a period.
If the title uses an em dash instead of colons for a subtitle distinction, preserve those.
If the information you are citing is not a routine format, use square brackets after the title to clarify. Common examples include:
Depending on what you are citing, retrieval information could be:
You will italicize a journal's volume number, but not the issue number: 12(13), for instance, is volume 12, issue 13. Only 12 is italicized.
Give the two letter state postal code after all American cities, unless the name of the state is included in the publisher's name. For foreign cities, spell out the name of the country.
APA requires you to provide DOIs if available when citing an electronic journal article. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. DOIs serve as a permanent link to electronic content. Because databases generate dynamic links (i.e.,links that change each time you access an article), it is impossible to use these links to direct someone to an article. If an article has a DOI, you can give that information and easily direct readers to your references. Below are different places that a DOI might appear:
(found by clicking the title of the article in the results list)
Once you have a DOI, you need to use a DOI Resolver to access the article. There are several resolvers, but the DOI.org and CrossRef resolvers are recommended. Input the entire DOI, and you will be directed to the main article page.
Sometimes this DOI will take you to a database that Santa Fe does not have access to. If this is the case, please call the reference desk at 352-395-5409 for help retrieving the full-text of an article.
You can format a DOI in your references list in the following three ways:
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